“Old and New Feminists in Latin America The Case of Peru and Chile” by Chaney E.M. Essay (Critical Writing)- by EduBirdie

The overall theme of this article revolves around discrimination against women in different areas (such as in their political life, employment, and education) and tries to establish whether it is possible for women to overcome these types of discrimination. The author notes that the recent developments in the struggle towards ending discrimination have led to the creation of movements that advocate for women’s rights.

Critical Writing on “Old and New Feminists in Latin America: The Case of Peru and Chile” by Chaney E.M.

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These movements have created boundaries that define women’s activities and provide them with power or authority to control certain fields. This is done with the aim of reducing or eliminating rebellions or negative reactions from women. The author observes that women from different countries (such as Latin America) were denied their fundamental freedom and rights to participate in political events such as voting.

During this period, the contribution and activities of women in politics were only limited to the “… indirect, tangential, a reinforcement of the masculine struggle” (p.331). Also, “…few women acted on their own; almost all notable women were wives, mistresses or daughters to notable men…” (p.331). This practice continued for a very long time.

It only began to change in the final stages of the seventeenth century. During this trustpilot.com/review/edubirdie.com time, women started to create groups or associations that could help them to raise collective arguments regarding their social status and conditions in society. By exploring the author’s arguments, it is evident that women struggled to achieve gender balance.

It is also vital to note that the author has managed to employ appropriate strategies that help the reader to understand the level of effort that came from the women in an attempt to fight discrimination. The author achieves the latter by quoting examples of women from countries such as Latin America who offered a tremendous contribution to end the practice.

The author asserts that “Latin America also boasts distinguished women of letters, beginning with Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz who first broke the silence of women in the seventeenth century” (p.331). The author also observes that only women who were relatively privileged were allowed to participate in active politics or work in male-dominated professions.

It was also a requirement for these women to be within either the upper or middle class. In my view, this was not a fair practice since this method hindered other potential women (not in upper or middle class) from participating in politics. Such practices were likely to negatively affect the level of effort undertaken by women to protect themselves against discrimination from their male counterparts.

Sociology ?

However, the author notes that the level of resonance was not similar in all countries. It was largely dependent on the level of women’s struggle in a particular country. For example, the feminism model from British-North America that was witnessed towards the end of the nineteenth century and early 20 th century did not face any major challenge from women in Latin America.

In the article, the author notes that several women’s groups from Latin America were established and operated by women. Moreover, they mainly focused on local struggles. Chaney (1973) is quite categorical that “the movement for women’s suffrage properly began in 1915 when Amanda Labarca founded a Circulo de Lectura (Women’s Reading Circle)” (p.336).

This demonstrates the high level of determination that women had in achieving their rights and freedom. Based on this scenario, it is evident that the author supported women in fighting for their rights. This is one of the reasons why the author uses myriads of examples in this article to illustrate the women’s struggle in ending discrimination.

It is worth to mention that after Amanda Labarca founded the Women’s Reading Circle, several other women’ groups were established to reach other women who were not holding positions in their groups. This was also meant to awaken them and increase their understanding of various issues, especially matters that relate to politics.

In my view, the author had used an appropriate methodology that includes illustrations and explanations in an attempt to how different aspects that existed when women were trying to eliminate discrimination. In this article, the author had emphasized and clearly explained the different strategies used by women to achieve their objectives when they had suffered high levels of discrimination.

The author argues that the establishment of national councils played a pivotal role especially in helping to create avenues that could be used by women to agitate and bargain for their feminist movements in the future. National councils also helped the women to develop well-established coalitions that could help to spread the need to liberate women and provide them with adequate mass support.

All the coalitions formed at that time were required to have women leaders with different political ideologies. I believe that the author insists on this form of a coalition so that it can help strengthen and unite women as they struggle to gain their right to vote.

Although the author has managed to employ a very good strategy in explaining how women struggled to fight discrimination, I believe that the author failed to observe some key considerations to help the reader in understanding the contents of the article. For example, the author has only used a limited number of sub-themes that may likely to complicate or confuse the leaders.

According to my perspective, I believe that the author should have divided the article into edubirdie.com reviews yelp numerous sections. Each section should have discussed a particular issue. Discussing different ideas in a single section may lead to a lack of coherence. Therefore, it can also deter some readers from reading fully.

Another major weakness of this article is the absence of a concluding paragraph. A conclusion serves a very vital role when writing an article. This is the section where the author tries to summarize all the important ideas that have been discussed in the article. The fact that there are some people who avoid reading long articles, a conclusion paragraph can help such readers to understand the content of the article without having to read the whole article.

However, the inclusion of a question in the last section of the article where the author notes “Latin American women themselves will decide their course of action in the context of their own culture and aspiration” (p. 341) gives women an option where they can identify and adopt whatever they feel is important to them. This means that the author does not limit the decisions of other people to his views. However, he offers the audience a chance to exercise what they feel is right.


Chaney, E.M. (1973).Old and New Feminists in Latin America: The Case of Peru and Chile. Journal of Marriage and the Family 5(2), 331-343.

“Metropolis” by Fritz Lang Report- by EduBirdie

The movie metropolis by Fritz Lang is a story of a city grappling with the introduction of machines to replace the work done by man. The city is divided into two regions comprised of a group of educated people controlling another group of slaves living in the subterranean region.

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The role of the slaves living in the subterranean region is to work in power stations to ensure that their masters and other people in authority live comfortable lives. For instance, the metropolis ruler has the privilege of enjoying immense beauty. One day, an invasion takes place when several waifs are brought into the sanctuary by Maria (Minden 258).They are immediately driven away as Freder decides to go after Maria in the darkness.

Due to the darkness, he cannot trace her and finds himself in the factory looking at the workers. While watching the workers, a section of the factory collapses leading to an industrial accident. The EduBirdie Reviews movie basically criticizes masters who are never concerned about the risks that their workers are exposed to. The suffering of the workers means nothing to them.

I find this movie realistic since the ruler’s attitude towards the workers is characteristic of many masters who mistreat their workers. Even when other people intervene to assist them, their efforts bear no fruits.

For instance, Freder tries to confront his father regarding the suffering of the workers but his father tells him that he should ignore the matter. The movie explores the relationship between sexuality and technology which is an important issue. Maria is the character who brings out this relationship well by playing various roles in the movie.

She encourages the workers to maintain peace, takes care of their children and shows love to Feder. On the other hand, the robot that Rotwang creates performs few roles as compared to the roles performed by Maria. The creation of this robot leaves many unanswered questions. For instance, one might want to know why Rotwang creates a female robot instead of a male one. The most probable answer which is the message being passed by Fritz is that men are afraid of women at the workplace and that is why Rotwang creates a female robot.

The movie Metropolis can be compared with another movie entitled ‘Inception’ which was released in 2010. Both movies exhibit some common relationships in that they portray the relationship between a father and a son. Inception presents a plan that relies on the capability of the manipulator to convince Fischer to ask questions regarding his relationship with the dead father.

Movies ?

Similarly, in Metropolis, Freder is constantly concerned about his son and his safety. In both movies, the issue of love is also addressed. Inception presents a sad love story of Cobb as he remembers his dead wife while in Metropolis, Freder is motivated by love to look for Maria after falling in love with her the first edubirdie.com day they met.

Despite the fact that the available versions of Metropolis are different from the original film, specific moments in the movie remain unchangeable. One of the moments that remain intact is the hallucination of Freder following the terrifying blast. The machine is transformed into a shrine as he watches and demands human beings as sacrifice.

Initially, the workers march together after staging a revolt and remain united before they start being violent. This issue is closed in the end when the workers move step by step with more information and it serves to keep the memory of the incident. The effect is that while the movie requires one to think a lot, one does not necessarily need to be an expert in film to enjoy it.

Works Cited

Minden, Michael. Fritz Lang’s Metropolis: Cinematic Visions of Technology and Fear . New York: Camden House, 2002.Print